Julian calendar dating
The Roman civil year started on 1st January and its use continued until the seventh century AD.The Christian Church generally wished to move towards using one of its major festivals as the start of the year, and Christmas Day was used from the time of Bede (AD 672 or 673 to 735) until the twelfth century.There are two elements of our modern calendar that were not always the same as they are now.One is the starting day of the year; the other is the rule for working out leap years.In the year 1700 the German and Netherland Protestant States and Denmark adopted the Gregorian calendar.Sweden wavered, keeping the Gregorian non-leap year of 1700 but reverting back in 1712 by having two leap days that year.
However the phrases are used with different meanings in different contexts and in different countries. Our modern practice of starting each New Year on 1st January, has indeed a long pedigree.
England could not help being influenced by the Gregorian calendar.